As a rule, all multirotor systems available on the market (tricopters, quadcopters, hexacopters, etc.) use two types of motors:
Brushed (other names: DC, Coreless, Collector) – this type of motor is found on almost all toy copters, such as Eachine E013, Syma X8, UDI 818A, Parrot AR Drone. Visually, small brushed motors look like shiny silver spray cans. If the quadcopter is larger than your palm and it uses gears to transmit torque (from the motor to the propeller), then most likely it is built on collector-type motors.
Cheap to make, easy to install, compact, light weight, and safer for kids, pets, walls, etc.
Brushed motors have a short life depending on their size. (The larger the motor, the longer it will run.) Those used in toy quadcopters typically have up to 6 hours of total run time before they stop producing their potential or even burn out. Brushed motors are not as powerful as the brushless motors mentioned below.
- Collector motors will last longer if the first few sorties are at minimum speed. In addition, since high temperatures are the enemy of coreless motors, it is recommended that the flight last no more than 6 minutes, since the heat generated after this time will significantly reduce the life of the motor.
- If you’re planning to buy a toy-class quad, try to find ones that have connector-switchable motors so that you can easily replace them without a soldering iron (for example, the Syma X8, Tarantula X6, and Blade Inductrix quads have this option). AR Drone also has these plug-in motors, but they are prohibitively expensive.
2 Outrunner Brushless
Outrunner Brushless (other names: Brushless Outrunner) – You will often find these motors on UAVs for aerial photography, such as the DJI Mavic series, Phantom, Yuneec Mantice G, Fimi X8SE, GoPro Karma, as well as on racing drones. The appearance of C/C motors varies by manufacturer, but they are generally short and sturdy. Multi-rotor systems that are built around brushless motors almost always support mounting the propellers directly on the motor shaft.
Brushless motors are very powerful, provide excellent torque without the need for a gearbox, and when used correctly, have a very long life. Such motors can run without stopping for quite a long time, unlike brushed motors, without being affected by thermal effects (however, excessive heat can temporarily reduce the performance of brushless motors, but after cooling their performance should return to normal).
More expensive than brushed motors and require additional electronic components such as ESCs (electronic speed controllers) to operate. They are more dangerous to surrounding objects (eg fingers, etc.).
- Brushless motors can run for many years until their shafts move (for example, in an accident). In cheaper B/C motors, this offset can be caused by poor build quality.
- There are lubricants that can be used to lubricate motors to make them last longer.
- Keep sand, dirt, dust and other foreign matter (other than air) out of the motors as this can seriously damage them.